Chapter 7

Lecture and Slide Notes

"Taking Control of Your Weight"

In chapter 7, the author explains how we grew so big; tells what obesity is and why excess pounds are dangerous; describes the current approaches to weight loss; discusses diets that work (and some that don't); offers practical guidelines for exercise and behavioral approaches to losing weight; and examines unhealthy eating patterns and eating disorders. Regardless of your current weight, you will find insights and build skills that you will need for a lifetime of healthy weight management.

Obesity is the #1 public health problem of the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of adult Americans are overweight. 1 in 10 preschoolers and 1 in 5 grade schoolers are seriously overweight. 1 in 6 children and teenagers is overweight. Obesity related issues exceed $120 billion/year in medical costs.

Prevalence of dieting in the U.S. Diet products are a 40 billion dollar per year (10 billion in needless memberships) industry! The industry fails to acknowledge the consequences of fast weight loss and it fails to consider the importance of lifetime behavioral changes to ensure appropriate weight loss and maintenance.

Obesity in the U.S. How did we get so fat? Americans have been consuming more calories, bigger portions (supersized portions), more fast food, technology has decreased physical activity, we have more passive forms of entertainment. Other causes have included modernization, socioeconomics, prenatal factors, childhood development factors (the media), genetics, and emotional influences.

Body dissatisfaction in African-American and white students- white females are leaner and carry slighly lower body fat percentages than AA students. Their perceptions are also lower; however, this gap has narrowed significantly in the past 20 years.

Male and Female Body Image
Females report a more negative body image than men. They compare weight to others more frequently than men. Media’s Impact- Beauty pageant queens and female models are taller, thinner, and have larger breasts. In males body image has a greater effect on men between the ages of 30 and 50. Media’s Impact - playgirl centerfolds are bulking up and may be using ergogenic aids.

Understanding Weight Problems Calories are the measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food. Calorie needs are influenced by gender, age, body-frame size, weight, percentage of body fat and basal metabolic rate.
Basal Metabolic Rate is the number of calories needed to sustain your body at rest.

Weight Loss Calculations 1 pound of fat = 3500 calories; Maximum weight loss should be no more than 1-2 pounds per week:
500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound)
1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds)

Active lifestyles are the key to fat loss - an example of a court stenographer changing his/her job from a computer keyboard to a voice command module was presented resulting in 6.7 pounds of fat gained in one year!

Holding the line on college weight gain includes practical steps such as increasing physical activity, planning meals, and eating out less often.
The Energy-Balance Equation includes balancing one's calorie intake with his/her output from exercise, physical activity, and metabolism.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the mathematical formula that correlates with body fat; the ratio of weight to height squared. Healthy is 18.5 to 24.9; overweight: BMI > 25.0-29.9; obesity starts are a BMI of 30+. High BMIs are associated with an increased risk of diseases such as Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, adult-onset diabetes (type 2), and sleep apnea. Obesity includes a BMI between 30.0-39.9 and is associated with an increased risk of death. A BMI above 40 is considered Morbid and carries 5 to 10 times the risk of premature death.

Why Do People Overeat? Hunger is the physiological drive to consume food while appetite is a desire for food, stimulated by anticipated hunger, physiological changes within the brain and body, the availability of food, and the other environmental and psychological factors. Satiety is a feeling of fullness after eating. The hormones leptin produced by fat cells that sends signals to the brain that affect appetite and ghrelin produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite.

A slide compared the pros and cons of low carb, low fat, and low calorie diets.
Yo-Yo dieting can lead to a greater resistance to weight loss and a greater efficiency of weight regain.
The basic types of popular diet schemes include:

  • Low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP) diets where you can eat all the protein foods you want but limit fruits and vegetables. These diets are high in fat, calories, sodium, and cholesterol and may alter one's glucose and insulin response. Glycemic index - high carbohydrate foods are categorized into a glycemic index. Foods with a high glycemic index cause a rapid rise in blood sugar and insulin therefore leading to a more rapid return of hungar and subsequent refeeding (refueling).

    The high protein and low-carb diets include Atkins, Sugar Busters, and the Zone. Many result in a rapid weight loss due to the loss of both lean muscle tissue and body water. There is often a rather fast regain of weight upon cessation of these diet plans. Their effectiveness dwindles over time and heart disease and cancer risks may increase.

    In the Physiology of weight loss, there are three basic assumptions:

    1. Balancing food intake against output
    2. All fat people simply eat too much
    3. The human body doesn’t care how much (or little) fat it stores

    Obesity involves a complex interaction between one's genetics, behavior (habits), and other lifestyle factors

    The best approach to weight management is to avoid “bad” fats, including trans-fatty acids and partially hydrogenated fats. Consume “good” fats, such as omega-3 fatty acids everyday. Eat fewer “bad” carbohydrates, such as sugar and white flour. Eat more “good” carbs, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, and unrefined grains like whole-wheat flour and brown rice. Have three or more daily servings of low-fat dairy products, which accelerate fat loss. Opt for quality of foods over the quantity. Exercise on a consistent basis!

    The health benefits of consistent exercise include 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. For weight gain prevention a total of 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day is needed. For weight loss maintenance a total of 60-90 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day is needed. In is recommended that children and teenagers get 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. The overall benefits include maintaining a healthy weight by increasing energy expenditure, building muscle tissue and burning off fat stores; stimulating the immune system; and reducing the risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Are You an Emotional Eater?

    Recommendations and treatments for weight problems
    If overweight (BMI = 25-29), cut back moderately on food intake and concentrate on developing healthy eating and exercise habits.
    If mild to moderate obesity (BMI = 30-39), one could consider a six-month trial of lifestyle therapy, including a supervised diet and exercise. One could also consider drug therapy (BMI>30 or BMI >27 with risk factors) such as Xenical (orlistat) and Meridia (sibutramine) with a goal of a 10% reduction in weight to reduce obesity-related risks.
    In cases of severe obesity (BMI = 40+), gastric, or bariatric, surgery may be considered.

    Disordered Eating In College Students
    Younger women (ages 18 to 21) are more likely than older students to have an eating disorder. Eating disorders equally affect women of different races, religions, athletic involvement, and living arrangements. Eating disorders do not only affect women (about 10% of cases are seen in males).
    Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns can lead to eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa involves extreme dieting behavior including drastically cutting calories, obligatory exercising, preoccupation with food and weight.

    The signs of compulsive overeating include:

    The signs of binge eating include:

    Who Develops Eating Disorders?

    Anorexia Nervosa “nervous loss of appetite” is a psychological disorder in which refusal to eat and/or an extreme loss of appetite leads to malnutrition, severe weightloss, and possibly death. The peak Age of onset is 14 ½ to 18 years The characteristics and medical issues related to anorexia include extreme weight loss (and muscle mass loss), sensivity to cold, irregular heart beats, loss of menstruation, and growth of lanugo body hair. The two types include restricting where individuals lose weight by avoiding any fatty foods and by dieting, fasting, and exercising and binge-eating/purging where individuals engage in binge eating, purging (through self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, or enemas).

    Bulimia Nervosa "ox hungar" is an episodic binge eating, often followed by forced vomiting or laxative abuse, and accompanied by a persistent preoccupation with body shape and weight. The peak age of onset is 18 years. The two types include purging where individuals induce vomiting or take large doses of laxatives to relieve guilt or control their weight and non-purging where individuals use other means, such as fasting or excessive exercise, to compensate for binges.
    The major health issues related to purging include:

    The underlying causes of eating disorders are:

    The major problems with fad diets include:

    Some of the most common weight loss myths include:

    A comparison between unhealthy and healthy breakfast, lunch, and dinner food choices was presented.

    Making wise food choices in regard to weight management include: